Black Internationalism

From the end of the nineteenth century and throughout the twentieth century black activists across the Atlantic world showcased their transnational political savoir faire, demonstrating how African-descended peoples profited from thinking and acting globally...

Colonization of Africa

Between the 1870s and 1900, Africa faced European imperialist aggression, diplomatic pressures, military invasions, and eventual conquest and colonization...

W.E.B. Du Bois

To most Americans, and especially to most black people, the name W. E. B. Du Bois triggers a moment of iconic recognition, for he is one of the most legendary figures of black history...

Pan-Africanism

Pan-Africanism represents the complexities of black political and intellectual thought over two hundred years. What constitutes Pan-africanism, what one might include in a pan-African movement often changes according to whether the focus is on politics, ideology, organizations, or culture...

African Resistance to Colonial Rule

While African resistance to European colonialism is often thought of in terms of a white and black/European and African power struggle, this presumption underestimates the complex and strategic thinking that Africans commonly employed to address the challenges of European colonial rule...

Marcus Garvey

Marcus Garvey is regarded as the leader of the largest organized mass movement in black his-tory and the progenitor of the modern Black Is Beautiful revival that reached its apogee in the 1960s and 1970s in the United States...

World War I

World War I was a transformative moment in African-American history. What began as a seemingly distant European conflict soon became an event with revolutionary implications for the social, economic, and political future of black people...

Harlem Renaissance

When Langston Hughes left his native Midwest to attend Columbia University in 1921, he was excited about his new school's location in the Harlem community. Hughes had already heard about a place that was the "Negro capital of the world,"...

Négritude

Négritude is a cultural movement launched in 1930s Paris by French-speaking black graduate students from France's colonies in Africa and the Caribbean territories. These black intellectuals converged around issues of race identity and black internationalist initiatives to combat French imperialism...

Caribbean Social Movements

For the Caribbean, the period between the onset of World War II and the triumph of the Cuban Revolution marked the high age of decolonization. In these two decades the issues that inspired the region’s people to collective public action...

Civil Rights Movement

At the midpoint of the twentieth century, African Americans once again answered the call to transform the world. The social and economic ravages of Jim Crow era racism were all-encompassing and deep-rooted...

African Decolonization

Through the process of decolonization that began, in most African territories, at the close of World War II, African leaders gained greater political power under European rule. In the decades that followed independence...

Black Power

Speaking for the Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee (SNCC) in June 1966, Stokely Carmichael introduced the new agitation slogan: Black Power. The SNCC challenged a new generation of leadership to realize self-determination, self-respect, and self-defense for black America...

Caribbean Independence

The years following the launch of the Cuban Revolution in 1959 saw the Caribbean catapulted onto the world stage at the height of the cold war. The dramatic outbreak of the revolution and the establishment in this hemisphere of the first socialist state...

Contemporary United States

The three decades after the Vietnam War marked a palpable shift from the rest of the twentieth century. The Civil Rights movement's calls for integration effectively ended, leaving the work of implementing visions heralded by Martin Luther King and countless other activists...

Contemporary Caribbean

The modern history of the Americas actually begins with the modern history of the Caribbean. From the time Europeans ventured into the so-called New World in the late fifteenth century, the Caribbean has played a most important role in the unfolding of events...

Contemporary Africa

The years 1980 to 2010 saw Africa transitioning from the era of decolonization to that of globalization. Two key events that best illustrate this transition are the creation of the state of Namibia in 1989, which brought an end to one century of colonial domination...